101 Great Philosophers: Makers of Modern Thought by Madsen Pirie PDF

By Madsen Pirie

ISBN-10: 0826423868

ISBN-13: 9780826423863

A advisor to one zero one thinkers within the background of philosophy. It summarizes the contribution one zero one key philosophers who've made to the advance of philosophical suggestion, because the old Greeks. It bargains a glimpse into every one philosopher's lifestyles and paintings.

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Having heard Plato’s definition of a man as a featherless biped, Diogenes plucked a chicken and presented it to Plato’s class as an example of a man. Plato subsequently added ‘having broad nails’ to his definition. Diogenes was reportedly seized by pirates on a journey and sold as a slave in Corinth. When asked what skills he had, he replied ‘governing men’, and asked to be sold to someone who 22 101 Great Philosophers needed to be governed. He was sold to Xeniades to tutor his sons. When Alexander the Great visited him at Corinth, he found Diogenes sunning himself and asked if there were anything he, Alexander the Great, could do for him.

His was thus a very practical philosophy, setting out lessons for everyday life about how to achieve virtue. His letters are full of insights on appropriate behaviour. Recalled from exile under Claudius to tutor the emperor’s stepson, Nero, Seneca became Nero’s adviser when the latter became emperor, and won praise for the promising early years of that reign, reportedly becoming a wealthy man in the process. Central to his philosophy was the importance of self-control. ’ People should train themselves every day to moderate their desires: ‘We should every night call ourselves to an account: what infirmity have I mastered today?

It is from lecture notes never intended for publication that his ideas endure. He wrote on physics, metaphysics, biology, logic, meteorology, astronomy, psychology, literary analysis, ethics and politics, often pioneering the whole discipline. His logical treatises set out universal rules of reasoning, including inductive and deductive inferences and syllogistic reasoning. ’ In metaphysics, Aristotle explores the fundamental principles of existence. He examines the essence of things, determining that they have ‘substance’, made up of matter and form; a notion carried through into mediaeval scholasticism.

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101 Great Philosophers: Makers of Modern Thought by Madsen Pirie

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