By A. F. L. Beeston
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Extra resources for A descriptive grammar of epigraphic South Arabian.
This means that the causer makes something which is near to appear as if it were far. In (20), the causer makes something which is false as if it were true to the mind of the hearer/listener. The causer makes things appear near or far, false or true to himself or to the mind of the addressee. In general in Oromo, indirect, similative and assistive causatives are differentiated grammatically; indirect causatives are double causatives, similative causatives are formed by CAUS3 and assistive causatives are formed by MID + CAUS1 in at least one dialect of Oromo.
In Amharic, structures of single causatives are interesting because of the following reasons: one, different from Oromo, there is an object agreement element on the (causative) verb which agrees either with the causee or the patient; two, only the accusative marked constituent agrees with the object agreement element; three, the causee can be expressed either as an accusative marked constituent or as an optional oblique phrase; four, the causee or the patient can be overt or dropped. Impersonal passives and intransitive causatives are also issues of interest.
Aš-guwabbät’-ä CAUS- bend-3M:PF The verb aläkkäs- ‘to cry’ is not expressed ideophonically but the intransitive causative aš-guwabbat’- in (34) is derived from an intransitive base gobbät’- ‘to be bent’. , to say ‘bent’. The affixation of the causative morpheme does not result in transitivization of the corresponding base verbs. These verbs could alternatively be used as ideophonic expressions. Verbs of sound emission such as aläk’k’äs- ‘to cry’, agäss- ‘to bellow’ and anbarräk’k’- ‘to release a loud sound’ are de-nominal intransitive causatives.
A descriptive grammar of epigraphic South Arabian. by A. F. L. Beeston