By D G E Hall (auth.)
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Additional info for A History of South-East Asia
Eugene Dubois's Pithecanthropus erectus and von Koenigswald's even earlier Homo modjokertensis belong to the early pleistocene age, and were once thought to form a race apart in human history. The late pleistocene age has yielded eleven skulls, found at Ngandong in the Solo valley, which are of a more advanced human type, but with a reasonably close affinity to the pithecanthropoid type. Then there are the Wadjak skulls of late pleistocene or post-pleistocene age, which appear to be related to proto-australoid man.
P. 131. • j. Ph. Duyvcndak, In/eiding tot de Ethno/ogie van de lndonesische Archipel, 1946. • H. R. van Heekeren, 'Bronzen Keteltrommen ', Orientatie, no. 46, Jan. 1954, pp. 615-:zs. v. Goloubew, von Heine-Geldem, van der Hoop, Uvy, Mansuy, and Tweedie. • The Stone Age of Indonesia, p. 131. • Op. , pp. :zs-6. CH. I THE PEOPLING OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA 9 characteristics thus: on the material side (i) the cultivation of irrigated ricefields, (ii) the domestication of the ox and buffalo, (iii) a rudimentary use of metals, and (iv) skill in navigation; on its social side (i) the importance of woman and of descent by the maternal line, and (ii) the organization resulting from irrigated cultivation; on its religious side (i) animism, (ii) the worship of ancestors and of the god of the soil, (iii) the location of shrines on high places, (iv) burial in jars or at dolmens, and (v) a mythology imbued with a cosmological dualism of mountain versus sea, winged beings versus water beings, men of the mountain versus men of the sea-coast.
The chief historical changes were to take place on the mainland. Thus we shall see the Chams ousted from central Annam by the Vietnamese, the Mons of the Menam overcome by the T'ais and those of the Irrawaddy by the Burmese. The Pyus disappear completely. The 'push to the south' which characterizes the prehistoric period is to be CH. I THE PEOPLING OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA II seen again in the historic period. It explains the actual grouping in Indo-China and to some extent in the islands today. Generally speaking, though there are notable exceptions, the migrations proceed by the narrow valleys of the rivers starting from China and the borders of Tibet, drawn on by the attraction of deltas and the sea.
A History of South-East Asia by D G E Hall (auth.)