By R.C. Hine, K.A. Ingersent, A.J. Rayner
Agriculture used to be a big merchandise at the schedule of the Uruguay around of multilateral exchange negotiations below the auspices of the final contract on price lists and exchange (GATT), introduced in 1986. during this especially commissioned quantity the nationwide positions on agriculture taken up via the foremost gamers throughout the process those negotiations are set out and analysed, kingdom via nation, through a workforce of across the world popular specialists. The editors have chosen and ordered the stories to supply a coherent overview and synthesis of the most concerns and components of controversy raised by means of the negotiations. exam of the explanations for the retaining of other nationwide views at the factor of agricultural coverage and alternate reform is helping to provide an explanation for why achieving overseas contract during this quarter of the GATT negotiations has been so elusive.
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Additional resources for Agriculture in the Uruguay Round
A step had been taken in that direction in 1973 within the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) when the domestic commodity programmes and international affairs were combined under a single Assistant Secretary for International Affairs . This did little to co-ordinate interdepartmental trade matters and concerns, however, and the ghost of agricultural protectionism quickly reappeared with the early 1980s downturn in exports. The basic change, therefore, with which the United States appeared at Punta del Este, Uruguay in 1986 was the intent, not only to integrate its own agricultural and foreign policy objectives and to present a unified position, but also to insist that all the farm policies and related agricultural issues of each country or political bloc be put on the bargaining table.
This meant fundamental change in all agricultural and trade policies and programmes, domestic and international. Implied in the United States position from the beginning was 'decoupling', or the separation of price or income payments to farmers based on production of farm commodities. The idea appears simple but is difficult of achievement and, contrary to implications in the current debate, it has been around at least 50 years. Academic economists in the United States were advocating decoupled payments as early as the 1950s, but Congress for the most part has always ignored proposals containing the concept (Reinsel, 1989).
2(c)(i) eventually led to the United States being granted a waiver to its commitments under those provisions. The celebrated Section 22 waiver was granted to the United States in 1955, as part of a wider revision of the General Agreement effected in that year. Although, in the strict letter of of the law, the 1955 waiver applied only to the United States, after it had been granted other GAIT signatories understandably felt free to operate quantitative restrictions on imports of agricultural products without domestic supply control.
Agriculture in the Uruguay Round by R.C. Hine, K.A. Ingersent, A.J. Rayner