By Krivenko, P. V.; Roy, D. M.; Shi, Caijun
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Additional info for Alkali-activated cements and concretes
The amphoteric metals Al and Mg are typical intermediates in vitreous blast furnace slag. Their coordination number is 4 when they act as network formers, and 6 as network modifiers. Their bond energies with oxygen atoms range from 210 to 335 KJ/mol. From the bond energies of network formers and network modifiers, it can be anticipated that the more the network formers are, the less reactive is the glass. The condensation degree of network formers determines the number of non-bridge oxygen atoms and structural units within the vitreous structure (Govorov 1976).
Steel furnace slag itself can display very good cementing properties under the action of a proper alkaline activator(s). Several studies (Petropavlovsky 1987, Li and Wu 1992, Shi et al. 1993) have confirmed that the use of alkaline activator can increase the strength, especially early strengths, and other properties of the steel furnace slag cement. Usually, some other materials such as blast furnace slag or fly ash should be used together with steel slag in order to eliminate the soundness problem.
Glukhovsky and Krivenko (1981) suggested that hydraulic activity of slag (especially in the presence of an alkali) would depend upon a combination of physical, chemical and structural peculiarities of both the vitreous and crystalline phases in the slag. Most standards in the world do not specify the glass content except the British Standard that requires a minimum glass content of 90% (Mehta 1986). 4 Grinding Prolonged grinding increases not only the surface area of a material, but also the number of imperfections or active centres which exist at the edges, corners, projections and places where the interatomic distances are abnormal or are embedded with foreign atoms.
Alkali-activated cements and concretes by Krivenko, P. V.; Roy, D. M.; Shi, Caijun