By Rick Ruddell
Ruddell examines the political, cultural, and social components that contributed to the expansion in incarceration within the usa from 1952 to 2000. Controlling for the affects of financial rigidity, violent crime, unemployment, direct outlays for advice, the proportion of inhabitants that's black, and the share of men elderly 15 to 29 years, Ruddell reports the impacts of political disaffection, civic disengagement, and social disruption on grownup imprisonment traits. The findings offer proof of the relationships among raises within the use of punishment and cultural or political values. the implications additionally aid the proposition that using punishment is an inherently advanced and political technique.
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Extra resources for America Behind Bars: Trends in Imprisonment, 1950-2000 (Criminal Justice, Recent Scholarship)
In 2002, over half of all federal prisoners were serving sentences for drug-related offenses, while about one-fifth of their state counterparts served similar sentences (Durose and Langan, 2003). Despite the lengthy sentences and millions of persons imprisoned over the past two decades, a recent study found that street drug prices have stayed the same, or decreased since 1988—suggesting that the supply of illegal drugs has not been reduced at all (Abt Associates, 2000). One explanation for the disproportionate imprisonment of minorities reported in Chapter 1 relates to the types of drugs targeted in the war on drugs.
To respond to the problem of prison overcrowding in the 1970s and 1980s, a number of corporations began to deliver correctional services—from the provision of food and medical services to a proposal made by the Corrections Corporation of America (CCA) in 1997 to operate the entire Tennessee state prison system (Parenti, 2000). The penetration of these multinational firms in criminal justice systems and the close 32 America Behind Bars relationships they share with federal and state officials has created considerable concern amongst punishment scholars.
In addition, people became less socially connected and this caused reductions in informal social control. Lastly, advancements in technology made the pace of these changes unparalleled (Toffler, 1970). Concurrent with these social and cultural changes, the public became increasingly disenchanted with their political representation after the Watergate scandal (Steigerwahl, 1995) and the number of political protests increased throughout this era (Myers, 1997; Olzak, Shanahan, and McEneaney, 1996).
America Behind Bars: Trends in Imprisonment, 1950-2000 (Criminal Justice, Recent Scholarship) by Rick Ruddell